Tips for hot days

Instructions for action in the summer heat

Unusually high temperatures during the summer months have become a common phenomenon in our country. The expected high temperatures in July and August can endanger people's health and lives.

BEWARE OF THE DANGER OF OVERHEATING!

To prevent overheating, we must follow certain rules:
  • Follow the weather bulletin.
  • Postpone the trip during the hot hours of the day, if not necessary. If we have to travel, it is preferable to do so with a vehicle with air conditioning.
  • Drink at least 2-3 liters of fluid a day (water, kefir). Carbonated drinks, drinks that contain caffeine and alcohol do not quench thirst and do not help to improve a person's condition.
  • Take breaks in the shade and, if possible, in cool, ventilated places.
  • When we are exposed to the sun, it is good to wear a hat and bright, light clothes, preferably made of natural fabrics.
  • Use anti-burn lotion with a high protection factor.
  • Young children and the elderly to drink enough fluids, even if they are not thirsty.
  • Avoid intense physical activity during the hot hours.
  • If we have received sunburn and have symptoms of overheating - seek medical attention.

Exposure of exposed parts of the body to direct sunlight can cause burns in a short time, and high temperatures can cause thermal shock. Young children, the elderly, the heart-sick, and people with lighter skin are most at risk.

If you have headaches, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps and / or do not urinate in the last hours, you may have dehydration. It is recommended in this case to drink water in small quantities, in small sips until the condition stabilizes. Seek medical attention.

If you notice confusion, disorientation, militancy or other changes in mental state, it is most likely heat stroke. Seek medical attention.

What can be the damage from overheating?

1. Thermal syncope
Thermal syncope is reached by disrupting the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. It is caused by fear, stress, pain, excitement, heat and long standing. In this situation there is a sudden dilation of blood vessels and bradycardia - a slow pulse. The resulting drop in blood pressure causes short-term hypoxia of the brain. The consequence is a brief loss of consciousness (syncope).

Measures:
  • the person is placed in a supine position;
  • possibly for a short time to put your feet high;
  • beware of concomitant falls injuries.

2. Heat exhaustion
The reasons for the depletion of forces from overheating are water and electrolyte losses through sweating. This can cause muscle cramps.

Recognition:
  • pale, cold and sweaty skin;
  • acceleration of the pulse, drop in blood pressure;
  • normal, up to slightly elevated body temperature;
  • nausea, vomiting, restlessness;
  • muscle spasm;
  • possible disturbances in consciousness.

Measures:
  • placing the feet in cold water;
  • in mild cases without nausea and blurred consciousness - fluid intake;
  • in case of unstable blood circulation and disturbance of consciousness, seek medical help.

3. Heat stroke
Heat stroke disrupts the body's temperature regulation under prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures. The body adjusts to sweat, leading to heat retention. Body temperature is constantly rising.

Recognition:
  • initially dry, hot, red skin;
  • later gray-cyanotic skin;
  • increase in body temperature (may occur with normal to slightly elevated body temperature);
  • nausea, dizziness, headache;
  • acceleration of the pulse and respiration;
  • blurring of consciousness, loss of consciousness.

Measures:
  • cooling the body, with a slightly raised upper body
  • oxygen supply, if possible 100%
  • heart rate control.

4. Sunstroke
Intense sun exposure on the uncovered head leads to irritation of the cerebral cortex. Symptoms often occur with a delay, resulting in the development of cerebral edema with increasing internal pressure. At-risk patients are children and patients with bare heads.

Recognition:
  • red, hot scalp;
  • nausea, vomiting, dizziness;
  • pain and tightness in the forehead (meningism);
  • acceleration of the pulse, drop in blood pressure;
  • blurring of consciousness, up to loss of consciousness.

Measures:
  • placing in cold water (ice), the upper part of the body - slightly raised;
  • cooling the head with wet towels;
  • supply of oxygen;
  • heart rate control.