PSS advises you

For your safety in the mountains


Information about the minimum of measures you need to take for your full experience in the mountains, as well as to ensure your safe return home.

Planning and preparation

  • Plan before you go! Study the route carefully, get acquainted with the dangerous areas!
  • Consider the equipment, experience, opportunities and enthusiasm of the participants in the group. Check the weather forecast and conditions for the area of the planned transition.
  • Learn basic first aid techniques!
  • When you are in a group of friends, make sure the guide is sufficiently prepared and experienced.
  • Many accidents happen at the end of the day when your energy is depleted, as is your phone's battery. Remember to charge your phone before you go to the mountains! Carry an extra or external battery.
  • Before you leave, inform someone about your route, the time allotted for the transition, and the time of your return. Inform him in case of changes.
  • Get the PSS mobile app on your phone ! Many mobile phones have the ability to send the coordinates of their location. Make sure you know how to do it.

Clothing and footwear

  • Wear comfortable shoes suitable for hiking.
  • We advise you to wear clothes with bright colors, warm enough, made of wind and water protection materials.
  • Wear spare warm clothes, hat and gloves; the higher you climb, the colder it gets.

Food and fluids

  • Food - In addition to the food you usually eat, take chocolate, dates or other similar sweet things that quickly restore energy. Even if you don't need them yourself, they can be useful to someone else.
  • Fluids - In warm weather, dehydration can be a serious problem. Our body needs a lot of fluids, both when climbing and when walking in flat areas.
  • The usual fluid intake for an adult during a hike in the mountains is 2.5 / 3 liters per day.
  • Take a larger volume of fluids; the more personal experience you gain, the more accurate your body's fluid needs assessment will be under different conditions.
  • Isotonic and other sports drinks contain a good balance of salts and carbohydrates needed to restore the sugars, salts and minerals we lose through sweating. This can reduce or avoid muscle cramps.

Equipment and its use

  • A map and compass , as well as the skills to work with them, should always be with you. A suitable watch (with GPS, barometer and altimeter ) can be very useful.
  • Regardless of the conditions, carry a whistle, headlamp (flashlight), spare batteries, insulating foil . In winter, appropriate equipment is needed to move.

Behavior when moving the group

  • Don't break up the band !
  • Pay special attention to the most unprepared participants, especially in more dangerous places.
  • Walking alone in the mountains leads to serious risks!

If you need help

  • Keep calm !
  • Be prepared to go back if the conditions in the mountain turn against you; the mountain will be in the same place tomorrow.
  • If you have a serious problem, call 112 for help and send an SMS with your coordinates via the mobile application of PSS. Take care of the victim (s) by giving them first aid and isolating them from the cold until help arrives.
  • Once you have contacted the PSS and know that mountain rescuers will come to you, stay put.

Mobile phones

  • Don't just rely on a cell phone to help you in an unforeseen situation.
  • There is not good coverage everywhere in the mountains. Call 112 for help!
  • In the mountains, even just a few steps to the side can cause signal loss. Once you have connected to the PSS, keep your phone switched on and in range so that we can contact you again. Don't make unnecessary calls - save battery on your phone!

Meteorological forecast

  • Check the weather forecast before heading to the mountains and be prepared to change or abandon the preliminary plan if the weather becomes inappropriate.

Dangers that can be avoided

  • Precipices and steep slopes.
  • Snowy or icy precipices, especially in spring and summer.
  • Very steep grassy slopes, especially if they are wet, damp or icy.
  • Unstable stone blocks.
  • Gorges, gorges or riverbeds.
  • Streams and rivers in heavy rainfall.
  • Snow visors on the edges and ridges.
  • Overestimation of your capabilities or experience.
  • Loss of concentration, especially at the end of a long day.

Dangers that need to be monitored constantly

  • Weather change - can happen suddenly and be much more extreme than predicted in the weather forecast.
  • Icy areas, snow drifts on the trail - bring cats and pickles that you know how to use.
  • Excessive cold or heat (appropriate clothing).
  • Signs of fatigue (recognize the signals your body gives you, stop to rest and keep warm).
  • Incident / illness (don't panic - if you send someone for help, stay put to make sure mountain rescuers know exactly where to find you).
  • In a stressful situation and under stress, time flows differently.

Pride

  • It's not a shame to come back if you have doubts and aren't sure.
  • The group takes into account the capabilities of the weakest participant.

In an accident in the mountains

Ski slope safety rules

Attention! Snow avalanches!

Attention! Snowdrifts!

If you need help, call 112 or the Central 24-Hour Post of the Mountain Rescue Service at the Bulgarian Red Cross 1470 (for all mobile operators) and 02 963 2000.